There is a growing trend in Scandinavian countries to adopt new styles of prison design that focuses on prisoner-rehabilitation. It's definitely time for the rest of the world to catch up, especially the US.
Karianne Jackson is one of the pioneers of reforming the prison systems in the US, shifting the focus from bare punishment to rehabilitation. A former director of the North Dakota Department of Correction and Rehabilitation, Jackson is currently leading a statewide Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI) in the US.
JRI is a programme designed to identify and implement foreign correctional principles that focus on reducing repeat offences to the American system.
So how did Jackson go from director of a department within the system to someone who wants to change it monumentally?
In 2015, she partook in a program where US prison officials travelled abroad to observe different prison systems. Before the trip, she did not expect to see anything out the ordinary — same old jail cells, cafeterias, guards, rules.
“What was I really going to see other than what I call the ‘IKEA prison’, right?”
Unexpectedly, she remembers feeling humiliated by what she saw in Norway at the Halden Prison. Halden was a better prison. Better in all aspects of its definition: design, environment, relationships. Simply, a pleasant place.
Associating prison with pleasantry seems alien. We are used to perceiving prisons as holes of punishment for those who commit a crime and deserve a horrendous life. In contrast, Halden Prison was all things non-horrendous. Karianne describes it as a “college campus”.
Can design foster humane treatment?
Karianne saw that Halden consisted of cottages, each of which hosts around twelve rooms, a common area to cook and lounge in, and lots of windows. She observed a clear link between prison architecture and a healthy environment.
As a prison professional with a Masters Degree in Forensic Psychology, she was curious to understand how design can affect behaviour change in prisons.
The Norwegian prison design reflects a non-traditional moral perspective on crime, punishment, and humanity. The design manifests a sense of trust, it gives prisoners privacy for better chances of rehabilitation.
Surrounded by a single wall, the prison does not have any electric fences, barbed wires or watchtowers. It has individual rooms without one-way windows to peek in, real utensils in kitchens, and gardens to roam about.
One of the most interesting aspects of the Norwegian prison system is that guards mingle with prisoners to eliminate any possibility of a dichotomized relationship. Everyone hangs out together, plays sports, and more
All these elements create a space for prisoners to feel human. Since this swap in the 1980s to what is called a “humane prison design”, the percentage of prisoner relapses in Norway decreased from 40% to 20%.
Halden is definitely not an anomaly. It reflects a larger discussion and research on how design can improve the correctional system.
Karianne’s current reform project makes explicit the links between architecture, organizational change, behavioural modifications among prisoners, and an overall reduction in reoffending. This project stemmed from a stark difference between Norwegian and American prison systems.
The American prison system needs to change
What Jackson witnessed at Halden was the total opposite of what she regularly saw in the US prison system in which the rehabilitation aspect of correctional facilities is often disregarded.
The United States is the world leader in incarceration, the country is locking up more prisoners than any other nation in the world. On top of this, for every four people who get released three ends up returning to prison.
The criticism towards America's punitive system has been gradually growing. People are realizing that a system based on dehumanization works neither short nor long-term.
One of the biggest issues US prisons face is the length of prison sentences. Since the 1980s, almost all crimes - murder, sexual assault, robbery, possession - have had very lengthy sentences. There are laws in place that maintain these lengths. For instance, “the truth-in-sentencing” laws force inmates to spend around 85 percent of their sentence before qualifying for parole.
The “tough on crime” policies establish a very crude system of incarceration. And Karianne Jackson is aiming to change these policies so the US can come closer to a Halden-esque prison system. She wants to implement designs and behaviour patterns that help prisoners realize other people care about them and are motivated to help them. In turn, increasing their willingness and ability to rehabilitate.
Establishing a humanely designed prison is a challenging task. It questions our own conceptions of crime and punishment. More so, it challenges our notion that design is for spacecraft, cars, and coffee machines.
What the people behind designing Halden, and other humane prisons alike, and Kariane Jackson are doing is approaching the phenomenon that is crime and punishment with the recognition of its complexity. And with the simple yet profound acknowledgement that the moral base of prison systems should be rehabilitation and not retribution.
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When we think of “global threats”, we usually imagine terrorist attacks, cyberwars, and weapons of mass destructions. Or maybe, trespassing into the realm of fiction, of James Bond’s Dr. No and other, similar, cats-owning villains.
Obviously, these are all fearsome scenarios and risks (especially Dr.No). However, there’s another “global threat” that is looming above us, even though we probably wouldn’t think of calling it that way. Such a threat is climate change.
Last Tuesday, the Office of the Director of US National Intelligence published its yearly Worldwide Threat Assessment, a hearing of the US Senate Select Intelligence Committee that has occurred since 2006.
In the report, the US intelligence community lists a series of “global threats” that humanity is currently facing. Amidst transnational organized crime, the proliferation of weapons of mass destructions, and online operations to interfere with political elections, we find also — grouped in the section relating to “human security” — the “negative effects of environmental degradation and climate change.”
In particular, the assessment highlights how the increased magnitude of these phenomena is likely to “fuel competition for resources, economic distress, and social discontent through 2019 and beyond.”
Three are the main critical points raised by the report. First off, the intelligence community is concerned by extreme weather events and particularly by how they will affect urban coastal areas in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Western Hemisphere.
Secondly, they link the increasing water and food insecurity around the world with the “changes in the frequency and variability” of heat waves, droughts, and floods.
And, finally, the report zooms in on the issue of diminishing Arctic sea ice, highlighting how this problem paves the way for increased competition with Russia and China over access to sea routes and natural resources.
En passant, the intelligence report reminds its readers that Arctic ice is shrinking constantly. “In 2018, the minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was 25 percent below the 30-year average from 1980 to 2010,” the report warns.
As environmental media outlet Inside Climate News reminds us, The Worldwide Threat Assessment included “climate change” as a global threat to human security also in the past years, so there’s “nothing new under the sun”: the ice is still melting.
However, while other global threats like terrorism are treated as such in the media, climate change is still too often debated not as an imminent threat but as something that, if at all, will strike far in the future. At the opposite, as the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment denounces once again, climate changes' effects are already underway.
A year ago, the UK government asked economist Frances Cairncross to conduct an independent review of the challenges high-quality journalism is facing in the country.
Last Tuesday, the Cairncross Review was published, highlighting nine recommendations that the government and regulators ought to follow to help secure the sustainability of journalism in the future.
The recommendations range from investigating the workings of online advertising (aka the Google-Facebook duopoly) to developing a media literacy strategy.
However, the recommendation that attracted my attention the most, given my particular interest in the charitable sector, was number nine.
It reads: “New forms of tax relief: The government should introduce new tax reliefs aimed at (i) improving how the online news market works and (ii) ensuring an adequate supply of public-interest journalism.”
Cairncross is hinting at two tax changes here. The first one is the extension of zero-rating VAT to digital subscriptions and micropayments for online news (currently, the exemption is enjoyed just by print newspapers and periodicals) and the second is granting charitable status to particular types of high-quality, public-interest journalism.
Last June, Cairncross issued a ‘call for evidence’ to gather material for the report and the review reveals that granting charitable status to select news outlets was one of the most frequently raised proposals.
As known, charities benefit from several tax breaks in the United Kingdom so it would be much easier for a news organization with charitable status to attract philanthropic donations that could provide a much-needed additional revenue stream.
However, this is easier said than done. As the report notes, UK’s current charity law is probably incompatible with the role of news organizations since it forbids charities “to undertake certain political activities such as securing or opposing a change in law, policy or decisions affecting the country”.
A solution could then be to add public-interest journalism to the list of charitable causes the 2011 Charities Act set out to advance. But, again, this might take time and be deemed legally too complicated. That’s why the Cairncross report also highlights a “second-best option”: building a journalistic equivalent of the Creative Sector Tax Relief that grants support to creative industries ranging from video-games to film production.
Legal feasibility aside, the indication expressed by Craincross is part of a larger trend that is taking hold in the news industry: non-profit journalism.
Facing shrinking revenue opportunities, several news media startups across the world decide to opt for business models that rely solely on donations, from private individuals or larger foundations.
One of the most notable examples is certainly ProPublica, a Pulitzer-Prize winning newsroom established in New York in 2007 to produce investigative journalism in the public interest.
But media organizations that adopt mixed business models are also considering the idea of attracting philanthropic money to fund in-depth reporting with increasing interest.
Just to give a number, Oxford University’s Reuters Institute for The Study of Journalism found that 12 percent of European publishers saw philanthropy as an “important” income stream in 2019.
Obviously, “philanthrojournalism” is not immune to criticism. How can we make sure that the money comes with no strings attached? And even if we can guarantee that the media outlet retains total editorial control - as in the examples I mentioned above - how could we envision a system where the funding doesn’t necessarily reflect the funder’s interest areas?
These are complex challenges that require bold and imaginative solutions.
Maybe we should think beyond large foundations. In a recent article for The Guardian, journalist Owen Jones contemplates a sort of democratized public subsidy for the whole media industry. His idea, firstly proposed by US media scholar Robert McChesney, consists of the state giving every citizen a yearly allowance of $200 to donate to one or more publications. In Jones’s hypothesis, the allowance would be funded by an annual tax on the advertising industry.
The idea lends itself to an array of criticism. There’s the evident risk, for example, that the funding will just mirror the electorate’s political preferences of the moment resulting in a pro-government press with more money than its competitors.
Regardless, the idea has the merit of being radical and out-of-the-box and that’s the kind of thinking we need in this ongoing brainstorming on the future of journalism.
There are many reasons why people decide to cut animal products from their diet, but the negative health effects of excessive meat and dairy consumption and the enormous environmental impacts of industrial agriculture are popular ones.
However, the suffering of billions of animals each year in factory farming, referred to in a 2015 Guardian article as one of the “worst crimes in history”, is the most powerful motivation for many, including myself.
Refraining from something that causes so much harm and suffering is laudable, but there’s one argument occasionally used in vegan and animal rights campaigns that warrants closer attention – the idea that consuming other creatures is morally wrong in its own right.
Opposing meat eating on ontological grounds – meaning, simply because animals are sentient beings, we shouldn’t eat them – separates humans from nature and prevents truly ethical relationships between humans, animals and the natural world. The late environmental philosopher Val Plumwood coined “ontological veganism” to describe this absolute opposition.
Ontological veganism asserts that beings that count as ethical subjects should not be eaten, in the same way that there’s a widespread taboo about eating humans. While this thinking erects another unhelpful boundary between animals and other life forms, it’s also ironic that the rationale underlying taboos against eating humans is the desire to radically separate humans from other animals.
By framing the consumption of other living beings as an inherent moral wrong, ontological veganism also risks demonising predation. In order to avoid this, a common approach is to “excuse” animal predation by arguing that the latter is part of “nature” while humans, as cultural beings, should be exempt.
Some of us – especially those living in wealthy countries – can indeed choose to opt for vegan products, but this argument reproduces another false dichotomy: nature vs. culture. Life is entanglement, with no clear boundaries between “humans” and other species, or between “nature” and “society”.
"Come among the deer on the hill, the fish in the river, the quail in the meadows. You can take them, you can eat them, like you they are food. They are with you, not for you."
This quote is from the late utopian author Ursula Le Guin, in her novel Always Coming Home. Her idea is akin to Plumwood’s theory of ecological animalism, which seeks to replace human supremacy over nature with mutual and respectful use between humans and other species.
Ontological veganism would frame using or consuming animals itself as inherently exploitative. But consider forms of mutual use seen in symbiotic relationships, such as those between pollinating insects and plants. In such scenarios, use isn’t oppressive or exploitative. It’s the form of use seen within industrial capitalism, where humans and non-humans alike are treated only as a means to an end, that prevents ethical relationships.
Ecosystems and all living beings depend upon mutual use and consumption. Orcas consume fish and other marine mammals, we must consume living vegetable matter at least, and when we die, we become food for a host of microorganisms, nourishing them in turn.
If humans are indeed animals who differ from other species only by degrees rather than kind, then like them, we are food. To deny this is to deny that humans are embedded within the ecosystems they originate from and are sustained by.
The horrific cruelty involved in industrial factory farming reduces living beings to mere profitable commodities. This is why I am a vegan, and it is here where calls for eradicating or at least reforming animal agriculture find firmer ground.
The ways in which animals are currently treated in agriculture represent the exact opposite of respect and mutuality. No wonder Aldous Huxley observed in his poignant ecotopian work, Island, that
"For animals… Satan, quite obviously, is Homo sapiens."
Ecological animalism offers a powerful basis for truly ethical and egalitarian ways of relating to other species. We are all food, and crucially, so much more. We are with and not for one another, and we are all worthy of respect. Go vegan whenever and wherever possible, but be mindful of the underlying rationales involved, lest we reproduce the same harmful dualisms we want to dismantle.